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Teams Players. League Asia Challenge J. League World Challenge Pan-Pacific Championship Premier League Asia Trophy Supercopa Euroamericana J. Achaean League is the last example of original Greek city-state federations dissolved after the Battle of Corinth BC.
The Cretan city-states continued to be independent except Itanus and Arsinoe , which lay under Ptolemaic influence until the conquest of Crete in 69 BC by Rome.
The cities of Magna Graecia , with the notable examples of Syracuse and Tarentum , were conquered by Rome in the late 3rd century BC.
There are also some cities with recurring independence like Samos , Priene , Miletus , and Athens. The Hellenistic colonies and cities of the era retain some basic characteristics of a polis , except the status of independence city-state and the political life.
There is self-governance like the new Macedonian title politarch , but under a ruler and king. The political life of the classical era was transformed into an individualized religious and philosophical view of life see Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Demographic decline forced the cities to abolish the status of metic and bestow citizenship; in BC, Miletus enfranchised over 1, Cretans. The foreign residents in a city are now called paroikoi.
In an age when most political establishments in Asia are kingdoms, the Chrysaorian League in Caria was a Hellenistic federation of poleis.
During the Roman era , some cities were granted the status of a polis , or free city, self-governed under the Roman Empire.
Derivatives of polis are common in many modern European languages. This is indicative of the influence of the polis -centred Hellenic world view.
Derivative words in English include policy , polity , police , and politics. A number of words end in -polis. Most refer to a special kind of city or state.
Examples include:. During the Cypro-Classical period, Polis became one of the most important ancient Cypriot city-kingdoms on the island, with important commercial relations with the eastern Aegean Islands , Attica , and Corinth.
The town is also well known due to its mythological history, including the site of the Baths of Aphrodite.
The names of several other towns and cities in Europe and the Middle East have contained the suffix -polis since antiquity or currently feature modernized spellings, such as -pol.
Notable examples include:. Pelosi represents California's 12th congressional district , which comprises four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco.
She initially represented the 5th district —93 , and then, when district boundaries were redrawn after the Census , the 8th district — Pelosi has led the House Democrats since —the first woman to lead a party in Congress—serving twice each as House minority leader —07 and —19 and as Speaker —11 and since Pelosi was a major opponent of the Iraq War as well as the Bush administration 's attempt to partially privatize Social Security.
During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of many of the Obama administration's landmark bills , including the Affordable Care Act , the Dodd—Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act , the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act , the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act , and the Tax Relief Act.
Pelosi lost the speakership in after the Republican Party won a majority in the House of Representatives in the elections. But she retained her role as leader of the House Democratic Caucus and returned to the role of House minority leader.
In the midterm elections , the Democrats regained control of the House. On January 3, , Pelosi was reelected to a fourth term as Speaker of the House.
Pelosi was born in Baltimore to an Italian-American family. She was the only girl and the youngest of seven children of Annunciata M.
Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age. She helped her father at his campaign events. She attended John F. Kennedy 's inaugural address when he was sworn in as U.
In , Pelosi graduated from the Institute of Notre Dame , an all-girls Catholic high school in Baltimore. In , she graduated from Trinity College in Washington, D.
After moving to San Francisco, Pelosi became friends with 5th district congressman Phillip Burton , and began working her way up in Democratic politics.
In , she was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until She was elected as party chair for Northern California in January , and four years later was selected to head the California Democratic Party , which she led until Phillip Burton died in and was succeeded by his wife, Sala.
In late , Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in She picked Pelosi as her designated successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons' contacts.
Pelosi won the special election to succeed her, narrowly defeating San Francisco supervisor Harry Britt on April 7, , then easily defeating Republican candidate Harriet Ross on June 2, ; Pelosi took office a week later.
Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country. Democrats have held the seat since and Republicans , who currently make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early s.
She won reelection in the regular election in and has been reelected another 16 times with no substantive opposition, winning with an average of 80 percent of the vote.
She has not participated in candidates' debates since her race against Harriet Ross. For the and election cycles, she held the distinction of contributing the most money among members of Congress to other congressional campaigns.
In the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees and was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as minority leader.
Pelosi is a member of the House Baltic Caucus. In March , Pelosi voted in favor of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of as well as to override President Reagan 's veto.
In , Pelosi was elected the House minority whip , second-in-command to Minority Leader Dick Gephardt of Missouri. She was the first woman in U.
In , after Gephardt resigned as minority leader to seek the Democratic nomination in the presidential election , Pelosi was elected to replace him, becoming the first woman to lead a major party in the House.
In the midterm elections , the Democrats took control of the House, picking up 30 seats. Pelosi supported her longtime friend, John Murtha of Pennsylvania , for the position of House majority leader , the second-ranking post in the House Democratic caucus.
His competitor was House Minority Whip Steny Hoyer of Maryland , who had been Pelosi's second-in-command since On January 3, Pelosi defeated Republican John Boehner of Ohio with votes compared to his votes in the election for speaker of the House.
With her election, Pelosi became the first woman, the first Californian, and the first Italian-American to hold the speakership.
She was also the second speaker from a state west of the Rocky Mountains. The first was Washington 's Tom Foley , the last Democrat to hold the post before Pelosi.
During her speech, she discussed the historical importance of being the first female to hold the position of speaker:.
This is a historic moment—for the Congress, and for the women of this country. It is a moment for which we have waited more than years.
Never losing faith, we waited through the many years of struggle to achieve our rights. But women weren't just waiting; women were working. Never losing faith, we worked to redeem the promise of America, that all men and women are created equal.
For our daughters and granddaughters, today, we have broken the marble ceiling. For our daughters and our granddaughters, the sky is the limit, anything is possible for them.
She also spoke on Iraq as the major issue facing the th Congress, while incorporating some Democratic Party beliefs:.
The election of was a call to change—not merely to change the control of Congress, but for a new direction for our country.
Nowhere were the American people more clear about the need for a new direction than in Iraq. The American people rejected an open-ended obligation to a war without end.
As speaker, Pelosi was still the leader of the House Democrats; the speaker is considered to be the leader of his or her House caucus. However, by tradition, she did not normally participate in debate and almost never voted on the floor, though she had every right to do so as a full House member.
She was also not a member of any House committees. During and after her tenure as speaker, Pelosi was perceived as a contentious political figure, with Republican candidates frequently trying to tie their Democratic opponents to Pelosi and with moderate Democrats seeking to show their moderate bona fides by expressing opposition to Pelosi.
Shortly after winning re-election, President George W. Bush claimed a mandate for an ambitious second-term agenda and proposed reforming Social Security by allowing workers to redirect a portion of their Social Security withholding into stock and bond investments.
In the wake of President George W. Bush's reelection in , several leading House Democrats believed they should pursue impeachment proceedings against the president.
They asserted that Bush had misled Congress about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq , and had violated the civil liberties of Americans by authorizing wiretaps without a warrant.
In May , with an eye on the upcoming congressional elections—which offered the possibility of Democrats taking back control of the House for the first time since —Pelosi told colleagues that, while the Democrats would conduct vigorous oversight of Bush administration policy, an impeachment investigation was "off the table".
A week earlier, she had told the Washington Post that, although Democrats would not set out to impeach the president, "you never know where" investigations might lead.
After becoming speaker of the House in January , Pelosi held firm against impeachment, notwithstanding strong support for that course of action among constituents in her home district.
In the November election, Pelosi withstood a challenge for her seat by anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan , who ran as an independent primarily because of Pelosi's refusal to pursue impeachment.
Prior to the U. The origin for the name "first hundred hours" is a play on words derived from former Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt 's promise for quick action on the part of government to combat the Great Depression during his "first hundred days" in office.
Newt Gingrich , who became speaker of the House in , had a similar day agenda to implement the Contract with America.
On January 5, , reacting to suggestions from President Bush's confidantes that he would increase troop levels in Iraq which he announced in a speech a few days later , Pelosi joined with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to condemn the plan.
They sent Bush a letter:. There is only a political solution. Adding more combat troops will only endanger more Americans and stretch our military to the breaking point for no strategic gain.
Rather than deploy additional forces to Iraq, we believe the way forward is to begin the phased redeployment of our forces in the next four to six months while shifting the principal mission of our forces there from combat to training, logistics, force protection, and counter-terror.
Pelosi was named Permanent Chair of the Democratic National Convention in Denver , Colorado. Pelosi has been credited for spearheading President Obama's health-care law when it seemed it would go down in defeat.
After Republican Scott Brown won Democrat Ted Kennedy 's former senate seat in the January Massachusetts special election , thereby causing the Senate Democrats to lose their filibuster proof majority, Obama agreed with then chief of staff Rahm Emanuel 's idea that he should do smaller initiatives which could pass easily.
Pelosi, however, dismissed the president's fear and instead mocked his scaled-back ideas as "kiddie care. In Obama's remarks before signing the bill into law, he specifically credited Pelosi as being "one of the best speakers the House of Representatives has ever had.
Though Pelosi was re-elected by a comfortable margin in the midterm elections , the Democrats lost 63 seats and ceded control of the House of Representatives to the Republicans.
After the electoral setback suffered by her party, Pelosi sought to continue leading the House Democratic Caucus in the position of minority leader, the office she held prior to becoming speaker.
After Pelosi's disparate intra-party opposition failed to pass a motion to delay the leadership vote,  Pelosi was elected minority leader for the th Congress.
On November 14, , Pelosi announced she would remain on as Democratic leader. In November , 60 Minutes alleged that Pelosi and several other members of Congress had used information they gleaned from closed sessions to make money on the stock market.
The program cited Pelosi's purchases of Visa stock while a bill that would limit credit card fees was in the House. Pelosi denied the allegations and called the report "a right-wing smear".
Of representatives Louise Slaughter and Tim Walz , who drafted the bill, Pelosi said they "shined a light on a gaping hole in our ethics laws and helped close it once and for all".
In August , Pelosi said her personal contact information was posted online following a cyber attack against top Democratic campaign committees and she had received "obscene and sick calls, voice mails and text messages".
She warned members of Congress to avoid letting children or family members answer phone calls or read text messages.
Tim Ryan initiated a bid to replace Pelosi as House minority leader on November 17, , prompted by colleagues following the presidential election.
In , after Democrats lost four consecutive special elections in the House of Representatives, Pelosi's leadership was again called into question.
In June , Representative Kathleen Rice of New York and a small group of other House Democrats, including Congressional Black Caucus chairman Cedric Richmond LA held a closed-door meeting to discuss potential new Democratic leadership.
The CEO out. The coach would be out and there would be a new strategy put in place. I am a strategic, politically astute leader. My leadership is recognized by many around the country, and that is why I'm able to attract the support that I do.
In November , after Pelosi called for the resignation of John Conyers over allegations of harassment, she convened the first in a series of planned meetings on strategies to address reforming workplace policies in the wake of national attention to sexual harassment.
Pelosi said Congress had "a moral duty to the brave women and men coming forward to seize this moment and demonstrate real, effective leadership to foster a climate of respect and dignity in the workplace".
In February , Pelosi sent a letter to Speaker Paul Ryan about the proposed public release of a memo prepared by Republican staff at the direction of House Intelligence Committee Chairman Devin Nunes.
The memo attacked the Federal Bureau of Investigation for its investigation of Russian interference in the United States elections.
Pelosi said the FBI and the Department of Justice had warned Nunes and Ryan that the memo was inaccurate and that its release could threaten national security by disclosing federal surveillance methods.
She added that Republicans were engaged in a "cover-up campaign" to protect Trump: "House Republicans' pattern of obstruction and cover-up to hide the truth about the Trump-Russia scandal represents a threat to our intelligence and our national security.
The GOP has led a partisan effort to distort intelligence and discredit the U. In February , Pelosi broke the record for longest speech in the House of Representatives when she spent more than eight hours recounting stories from DREAMers —people brought to the United States as minors by undocumented immigrants—to object to a budget deal that would raise spending caps without addressing the future of DACA recipients , who were at risk of deportation by the Trump administration.
In May , after the White House invited two Republicans and no Democrats to a briefing by Department of Justice officials on an FBI informant who had made contact with the Trump campaign,  Pelosi and Senate minority leader Schumer sent a letter to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein and FBI director Wray calling for "a bipartisan Gang of Eight briefing that involves congressional leadership from both chambers".
In August , Pelosi called for the resignation of Duncan D. In the midterm elections , the Democrats regained a majority of seats in the House.
On November 28, House Democrats nominated Pelosi to once again serve as speaker of the House. Pelosi "clinched the speakership after weeks of whittling down opposition from some fellow Democrats seeking a new generation of leadership.
The deal to win over holdouts put an expiration date on her tenure: she promised not to stay more than four years in the job". On February 4, , at the conclusion of President Trump's State of the Union , Pelosi tore up her official copy of his speech.
It was a such a dirty speech. At the start of the th Congress, Pelosi opposed President Trump's attempts to use the —19 federal government shutdown which she called a "hostage-taking" of civil servants as leverage to build a substantial wall on the American border.
However, Trump reiterated his demand for the border wall funding and said he would shut down the government again or declare a national emergency and use military funding to build the wall if Congress did not appropriate the funds by February 15, reopening the federal government.
On February 15, , President Trump declared a national emergency in order to bypass the United States Congress, after being unsatisfied with a bipartisan border bill which had passed the House of Representatives and the Senate a day before.
With Pelosi having successfully impeached President Trump on December 18, , and on the eve of his trial before the U. Senate, The Washington Post political writer Paul Kane called her the most powerful House speaker in at least twenty-five years, noting that some historians were comparing her influence to that of former Speaker Sam Rayburn of Texas.
Pelosi aided with the passage of the CARES Act. Pelosi attracted controversy when footage emerged in early September of her visiting a hair salon in San Francisco.
This was contrary to regulations enforced at that time preventing service indoors. Pelosi's actions were defended by her stylist and other Democrats.
Pelosi was a founding member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus , but left in after being elected House minority leader. Pelosi voted against the Secure Fence Act of In June , Pelosi visited a federal facility used to detain migrant children separated from their parents and subsequently called for the resignation of Department of Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen.
Pelosi has long supported LGBT rights. In , she voted against the Defense of Marriage Act ,  and in and , she voted against the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment , which would amend the United States Constitution to define marriage federally as being between one man and one woman, thereby overriding states' individual rights to legalize same-sex marriage.
She also indirectly voiced her opposition to California Proposition 8 , a successful state ballot initiative which defined marriage in California as a union between one man and one woman.
She said: "My religion compels me—and I love it for it—to be against discrimination of any kind in our country, and I consider [the ban on gay marriage] a form of discrimination.
I think it's unconstitutional on top of that. Pelosi supports the Equality Act , a bill that would expand the federal Civil Rights Act of to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
In , she spoke in Congress in favor of the bill and called for ending discrimination against LGBT people. Pelosi also opposes Trump's transgender military ban.
Pelosi supports reform in marijuana laws , although NORML 's deputy director Paul Armentano said she and other members of Congress had not done anything to change the laws.
As speaker of the House, Pelosi quietly moved the statue of Robert E. Lee from the National Statuary Hall of the U.
Capitol to the Capitol crypt. In , while Pelosi was the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee , she was briefed on the ongoing use of " enhanced interrogation techniques ", including waterboarding , authorized for a captured terrorist, Abu Zubaydah.
But there was no objecting, no hand-wringing. The attitude was, 'We don't care what you do to those guys as long as you get the information you need to protect the American people.
These techniques later became controversial, and in Pelosi's office said she had protested their use at the time, and she concurred with objections raised by Democratic colleague Jane Harman in a letter to the CIA in early Officials in Congress say her ability to challenge the practices may have been hampered by strict rules of secrecy that prohibited her from taking notes or consulting legal experts or members of her own staffs.
What they did tell us is that they had some legislative counsel—the Office of Legislative Counsel opinions that they could be used, but not that they would.
And they further [ As speaker of the house, she also spearheaded the Fair Minimum Wage Act of as part of the Hour Plan. The Act raises the minimum wage in the United States and the territories of the Northern Marianas Islands and American Samoa.
American Samoa was initially absent from the act, but as part of HR it was included. One Republican congressman who voted against the initial bill accused Pelosi of unethically benefiting Del Monte Foods headquartered in her district by the exclusion of the territory, where Del Monte's StarKist Tuna brand is a major employer.
Pelosi opposed the welfare reform proposed by President Bush as well as reforms proposed and passed under President Clinton. It robs from the future [and] it rewards the rich She said that, given the benefits corporations received from the tax bill, the benefits workers got equated to "crumbs".
In November , Pelosi said she had spoken with President Trump on infrastructure development. Though he "really didn't come through with it in his first two years in office" while it was a topic during his campaign, the subject had not been a partisan matter in Congress.
She mentioned potential bipartisan legislative initiatives that would "create good paying jobs and will also generate other economic growth in their regions".
In August , after President Trump signed an emergency declaration for federal aid in combating the Carr Fire in Northern California , Pelosi lauded the move as "an important first step" but requested the president adhere to a wish by California Governor Jerry Brown for further aid to other hard-hit areas in California.
She called for the Trump administration to take "real, urgent action to combat the threat of the climate crisis , which is making the wildfire season longer, more expensive and more destructive".
In , Pelosi voted against displaying the Ten Commandments in public buildings, including schools. In , Pelosi said climate change was "the existential threat of our time", and called for action to curb climate change.
Pelosi has supported the development of new technologies to reduce U. She has also voted to remove an amendment that would allow for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Pelosi has blocked efforts to revive offshore oil drilling in protected areas, reasoning that offshore drilling could lead to an increase in dependence on fossil fuels.
Pelosi was instrumental in passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of She was a key figure in convincing President Barack Obama to continue pushing for health-care reform after the election of Massachusetts Senator Scott Brown in a January special election —a defeat seen as potentially fatal to Democratic reform efforts.
Pelosi has voted to increase Medicare and Medicaid benefits. On March 10, , Pelosi said Democrats would continue battling Republican efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act, but they would also be willing to form a compromise measure if Republicans reached out for bipartisan support.
She indicated her support for the Republican plan to expand Health Savings Accounts and said the question of Republicans' accepting an expansion of Medicaid was important.
Pelosi said the Democrats would be unified as putting "a stake in the heart of this monstrous bill". In July , during a speech at Independence First, Pelosi said the goal of the Democrats "has always been to expand coverage and to do so in a way that improves benefits That's my main issue, because I think that's, again, about the health and financial health of the America's families and if Hillary had won, I could go home.
Pelosi voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of and earlier attempts at similar bans, and voted against the criminalization of certain situations where a minor is transported across state lines for an abortion HR , passed.
She has voted in favor of lifting the ban on privately funded abortions at overseas U. She also voted in favor of the Abortion Funding Amendment, which would have allowed the use of district funds to promote abortion-related activities, but would have prohibited the use of federal funds.
In , she was rebuked by Archbishop Donald Wuerl of Washington, D. The archbishop's statement quoted Pelosi as saying the church has not been able to come with a definition of when life begins.
During the interview she said, "over the history of the church, this [what constitutes the moment of conception] is an issue of controversy.
In a January 25, , interview with George Stephanopoulos for ABC News , Pelosi said that one of the reasons she supported family planning services was that they would "reduce costs to states and to the federal government.
Pelosi stands in favor of increased background checks for potential gun owners, as well as the banning of assault weapons.
In February , she called for the "Boldest possible move" on gun control, similar to a stance made just weeks earlier by former Representative, mass shooting victim, and fellow gun control advocate Gabrielle Giffords.
In February , following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting , Pelosi said Republicans' "cowering" to the gun lobby was "an assault on our whole country" and that the victims were "paying the price for our inaction".
She requested House Speaker Ryan and Republicans take action via consideration of legislation expanding background checks or authorizing researchers to use federal dollars to examine public health as it relates to gun violence.
Pelosi also advocated for the creation of a special committee on gun violence and said Republicans had previously created committees to investigate Planned Parenthood and the Benghazi attack.
In November , after the Thousand Oaks shooting , Pelosi released a statement saying Americans "deserve real action to end the daily epidemic of gun violence that is stealing the lives of our children on campuses, in places of worship and on our streets" and pledged that gun control would be a priority for House Democrats in the th United States Congress.
With regard to Representative Charles Rangel 's D-NY plan to introduce legislation that would reinstate the draft, Pelosi said she did not support it.
In March , the New York Post wrote that the conservative watchdog group Judicial Watch had obtained emails sent by Pelosi's staff requesting the United States Air Force USAF to provide specific aircraft—a Boeing —for Pelosi to use for taxpayer-funded travel.
The Sergeant at Arms requested—for security reasons—that the plane provided be capable of non-stop flight, requiring a larger aircraft.
The Pentagon said "no one has rendered judgment" that Pelosi's use of aircraft "is excessive". During a news conference on June 9, , after a reporter asked her about tweets by President Donald Trump lambasting former FBI director James Comey following Comey's testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee, Pelosi said no one at the White House seemed courageous enough to tell Trump his tweets were beneath the dignity of the presidency and that she was worried about his fitness for office.
In January , Pelosi referred to Trump's State of the Union Address as a performance without serious policy ideas the parties could collaborate on.
She questioned Trump's refusal to implement Russian sanctions after more than members of Congress voted to approve them.
Pelosi did note the scandal as having highlighted a double standard of Republicans on issues of family values and expectations of presidential behavior, saying the party would be very involved if the event was happening to a Democrat.
Schumer met with Trump and Pence in December to discuss changes to be made when the new Democratic representatives takes office in The Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives in the November elections, and Pelosi took office as speaker.
Multiple House committees launched investigations into various actions by Trump and some of his cabinet members and requested or subpoenaed documents and information from the White House and the administration.
Pelosi initially resisted efforts by some fellow House Democrats to pursue Trump's impeachment,   but in September , following revelations of the Trump—Ukraine scandal , announced the beginning of a formal House impeachment inquiry , saying "The actions taken to date by the president have seriously violated the Constitution" and that Trump "must be held accountable—no one is above the law.
In May , the White House intervened to halt former White House Counsel Don McGahn from complying with a subpoena issued by the House Judiciary Committee , instructing the committee to redirect its records requests to the White House.
Pelosi, who had previously urged "Democrats to focus on fact-finding rather than the prospect of any impeachment",   described Trump's interference regarding McGahn's records as an obstruction of justice , saying that "Trump is goading us to impeach him.
Trump told Pelosi and Schumer he could not work with them until they stopped investigating him. Later in the day, Pelosi accused Trump of "obstructing justice" and again said he "is engaged in a cover-up".
Pelosi said, when opening debate on the articles of impeachment , "If we do not act now, we would be derelict in our duty.
It is tragic that the president's reckless actions make impeachment necessary. He gave us no choice. McConnell rejected these efforts, and the House transmitted the articles to the Senate on January 15, , with Pelosi naming seven Democratic Representatives, led by Representative Adam Schiff , as the House managers to argue the impeachment case against Trump in the Senate.
Following the Senate vote, Trump claimed vindication and criticized Democrats, the FBI, and Pelosi. In a speech at the National Prayer Breakfast , Trump referred to Pelosi as "a horrible person", and questioned her religious faith; Pelosi said these remarks were "particularly without class".
Days after the Senate impeachment vote, Trump fired two officials who had testified against him during the impeachment inquiry: U. Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland and Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Vindman , a National Security Council official.
Pelosi called the firing of Vindman a "shameful" and "clear and brazen act of retaliation that showcases the President's fear of the truth", saying that "History will remember Lieutenant Colonel Vindman as an American hero.
On October 8, , Pelosi announced that legislation was being introduced in the House of Representatives to advance the creation of a commission to allow the use the 25th Amendment to the Constitution to intervene and remove Trump from executive duties.
In , after a meeting with the Dalai Lama and officials in the Tibetan government-in-exile , Pelosi criticized the People's Republic of China for its handling of the unrest in Tibet ; addressing a crowd of thousands of Tibetans in Dharamsala , India, Pelosi called on "freedom-loving people" worldwide to denounce China for its human rights abuses in Tibet.
Pelosi criticized the imprisonment of Hong Kong democracy activists in August for their roles in a protest at the Civic Square in front of the Central Government Complex in Hong Kong.
She called the ruling an injustice that should "shock the conscience of the world". Before the Trump administration took concrete measures against China in late March , Pelosi and other Democratic leaders pressed Trump to focus more on China and impose real punishments, such as fulfill his own campaign commitments to label China a currency manipulator and stop China from pressuring U.
Pelosi urged Trump to take a strong stand against unfair market barriers in China. In September , Pelosi met with Hong Kong pro-democracy activist Joshua Wong on Capitol Hill; Chinese media responded by accusing Pelosi of "backing and encouraging radical activists".
Pelosi met with Uribe and later released a statement that she and other members of Congress had "expressed growing concerns about the serious allegations" of links between paramilitary groups and Colombian government officials.
In , Pelosi said: "For years, I have opposed the embargo on Cuba. I don't think it's been successful, and I think we have to remove the travel bans and have more exchanges—people to people exchanges with Cuba.
Pelosi opposed U. In a February 15, , interview Pelosi said that Bush consistently said he supports a diplomatic resolution to differences with Iran "and I take him at his word".
At the same time, she said, "I do believe that Congress should assert itself, though, and make it very clear that there is no previous authority for the president, any president, to go into Iran".
Jones of North Carolina introduced a resolution  requiring that—absent a national emergency created by an attack, or a demonstrably imminent attack, by Iran upon the United States or its armed forces—the president must consult with Congress and receive specific authorization prior to initiating any use of military force against Iran.
In July , Pelosi said she was convinced Obama would have enough votes to secure the Iran nuclear deal , crediting the president with having made a "very strong and forceful presentation of his case supporting the nuclear agreement with Iran" and called the deal "a diplomatic masterpiece".
In , Pelosi argued against two bills that if enacted would block Iran's access to the dollar and impose sanctions for its ballistic missile program: "Regardless of whether you supported the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action JCPOA , we all agree that Iran must not possess a nuclear weapon.
At this time, the JCPOA is the best way to achieve this critical goal. In , Pelosi opposed the Iraq Resolution authorizing President George W.
Bush to use military force against Iraq , which passed the House on a — vote. It is about respecting the United Nations and a multilateral approach, which is safer for our troops.
Although Pelosi voted against the Iraq War , anti-war activists in San Francisco protested against her voting to continue funding the war.
UC Berkeley political scientist Bruce Cain said Pelosi had to balance the demands of her anti-war constituency against the moderate views of Democrats in tight races around the country in her role as minority leader.
Pelosi reaffirms that "America and Israel share an unbreakable bond: in peace and war; and in prosperity and in hardship". America's commitment to the safety and security of the State of Israel is unwavering, Pelosi voted in favor of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of , which urged the federal government to relocate the American embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.
She agrees with the current U. She has applauded Israeli "hopeful signs" of offering land while criticizing Palestinian "threats" of not demonstrating peace in turn.
She states, "If the Palestinians agree to coordinate with Israel on the evacuation, establish the rule of law, and demonstrate a capacity to govern, the world may be convinced that finally there is a real partner for peace".
During the Lebanon War , Pelosi voted in favor of Resolution " Pelosi asserts that civilians on both sides of the border "have been put at risk by the aggression of Hamas and Hezbollah" in part for their use of "civilians as shields by concealing weapons in civilian areas".
In September , Pelosi hosted a reception in Washington with Israeli Knesset speaker Dalia Itzik , along with 20 members of Congress, where they toasted the "strong friendship" between Israel and the United States.
During the ceremony, Pelosi held up the replica dog tags of the three Israeli soldiers captured by Hezbollah and Hamas in and said she keeps them as a "symbol of the sacrifices made, sacrifices far too great by the people of the state of Israel".
Pelosi supported Israel in the Israel—Gaza conflict. Ilhan Omar of Minnesota for posting controversial tweets related to Jews and Israel. We will never allow anyone to make Israel a wedge issue.
In January , Pelosi voted against a House resolution that would condemn the UN Security Council Resolution This UN Security Council Resolution called Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories in the West Bank a "flagrant violation" of international law and a major obstacle to peace.
Pelosi has voiced heavy criticism over Israel's plan to annex parts of the West Bank and Jordan Valley. She said Israeli annexation would undermine U.
Nancy Pelosi is one of the few members of Congress to have traveled to North Korea. She has expressed concern about the danger of nuclear proliferation from the North Korean regime , and the ongoing problems of hunger and oppression imposed by that country's leadership.
In August , following Trump's warning that North Korea "will be met with fire and fury like the world has never seen" in the event of further threats to the United States, Pelosi said the comments were "recklessly belligerent and demonstrate a grave lack of appreciation for the severity of the North Korean nuclear situation.
His saber-rattling and provocative, impulsive rhetoric erode our credibility. In November , after the Pentagon sent a letter to lawmakers stating a ground invasion was the only way to destroy all North Korea's nuclear weapons without concern for having missed any, Pelosi said she was concerned about Pyongyang's selling nuclear technology to third parties and called for the United States to "exhaust every other remedy".
In June , after Trump praised North Korean leader Kim Jong-un , Pelosi said in a statement, "In his haste to reach an agreement, President Trump elevated North Korea to the level of the United States while preserving the regime's status quo.
In December , Pelosi wrote a letter to Speaker Paul Ryan advocating for the continued House investigation into Russian interference in the election on the grounds that Americans deserved "a comprehensive and fair investigation into Russia's attack" and "America's democracy and national security" being at stake.
Pelosi cited the need for Congress to "fully investigate Russia's assault on our election systems to prevent future foreign attacks".
In February , after the release of a Republican report alleging surveillance abuses by the Justice Department, Pelosi accused Trump of siding with President of Russia Vladimir Putin at the expense of preserving intelligence sources and methods.
Pelosi supports the Syria Accountability Act and Iran Freedom and Support Act. In a speech at the AIPAC annual conference, Pelosi said that "for too long, leaders from both parties haven't done enough" to put pressure on Russia and China who are providing Iran with technological information on nuclear issues and missiles.
Pelosi supported the NATO-led military intervention in Libya in In January , Pelosi criticized President Trump's planned withdrawal of U.
She called Trump's announcement a "Christmas gift to Vladimir Putin". In mid-October , after the House Foreign Affairs Committee passed a resolution to label the killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks as genocide, Pelosi pledged to bring the measure to a vote.
The resolution was passed during Pelosi's second term as a speaker. The house voted to 11 in October to confirm the resolution.
Pelosi's only close race so far has been in the special election to succeed U. Representative Sala Burton after her death in February Pelosi defeated San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt in the Democratic primary with 36 percent of the vote to his 32 percent,   then Republican Harriet Ross by more than 2-to In , after the redistricting from the Census , Pelosi ran in California's 8th congressional district , which now covered the San Francisco area.
She has continued to post landslide victories since, dropping beneath 80 percent of the vote only twice. Nancy D'Alesandro met Paul Francis Pelosi while she was attending college.
Nancy and Paul Pelosi have five children: Nancy Corinne, Christine , Jacqueline, Paul, and Alexandra ; and nine grandchildren. In , Christine published a book, Campaign Boot Camp: Basic Training for Future Leaders.
Pelosi resides in the Pacific Heights neighborhood of San Francisco. Helena, California , two commercial buildings in San Francisco, and a townhouse in Loomis, California.
Roll Call said Pelosi's earnings are connected to her husband's heavy investments in stocks that include Apple, Disney, Comcast, and Facebook.
Pelosi is a board member of the National Organization of Italian American Women. In , she received the NIAF Special Achievement Award for Public Advocacy and remains involved in the foundation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Paul Pelosi. House website Speaker website. Progressivism Social liberalism.
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